Diplomystes viedmensis MacDonagh, 1931
comb.nov. from Olivaichthys
Azpelicueta, M. (1994):
Los diplomístidos en Argentina (Siluriformes, Diplomystidae).
Fauna de agua dulce de la República Argentina 40 (4): 4-27
Muñoz-Ramírez, C.P., N. Colin, C.B. Canales-Aguirre, A. Manosalva, R. López-Rodríguez, J. Sukumaran & K. Górski (2023):
Species tree analyses and speciation-based species delimitation support new species in the relict catfish family Diplomystidae and provide insights on recent glacial history in Patagonia.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 189: 107932, 11 p.
abstract (from 2nd publication):
Diplomystidae is an early-diverged family of freshwater catfish endemic to southern South America. We have recently collected five juvenile specimens belonging to this family from the Bueno River Basin, a basin which the only previous record was a single juvenile specimen collected in 1996. This finding confirms the distribution of the family further South in northern Patagonia, but poses new questions about the origin of this population in an area with a strong glacial history. We used phylogenetic analyses to evaluate three different hypotheses that could explain the origin of this population in the basin. First, the population could have originated in Atlantic basins (East of the Andes) and dispersed to the Bueno Basin after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) via river reversals, as it has been proposed for other population of Diplomystes as well as for other freshwater species from Patagonia. Second, the population could have originated in the geographically close Valdivia Basin (West of the Andes) and dispersed south to its current location in the Bueno Basin. Third, regardless of its geographic origin (West or East of the Andes), the Bueno Basin population could have a longer history in the basin, surviving in situ through the LGM. In addition, we conducted species delimitation analyses using a recently developed method that uses a protracted model of speciation. Our goal was to test the species status of the Bueno Basin population along with another controversial population in Central Chile (Biobío Basin), which appeared highly divergent in previous studies with mtDNA. The phylogenetic analyses showed that the population from the Bueno Basin is more related to Atlantic than to Pacific lineages, although with a deep divergence that predated the LGM, supporting in situ survival rather than postglacial dispersal. In addition, these analyses also showed that the species D. nahuelbutaensis is polyphyletic, supporting the need for a taxonomic reevaluation. The species delimitation analyses supported two new species which are described using molecular diagnostic characters: Diplomystes arratiae sp. nov. from the Biobío, Carampangue, and Laraquete basins, maintaining D. nahuelbutaensis valid only for the Imperial Basin, and Diplomystes habitae sp. nov. from the Bueno Basin. This study greatly increases the number of species within both the family Diplomystidae and Patagonia, and contributes substantially to the knowledge of the evolution of southern South American freshwater biodiversity during its glacial history. Given the important contribution to the phylogenetic diversity of the family, we recommend a high conservation priority for both new species. Finally, this study highlights an exemplary scenario where species descriptions based only on DNA data are particularly valuable, bringing additional elements to the ongoing debate on DNA-based taxonomy.