new synonymy:
Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963
is a senior synonym of
Potamotrygon castexi Castello & Yagolkowski, 1969

published in:
da Silva, J.P.C.B. & M.R. de Carvalho (2011):
A taxonomic and morphological redescription of Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963 (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae).
Neotropical Ichthyology 9 (1): 209-232

abstract (from publication):
A taxonomic revision of two nominal species of freshwater stingrays of the genus Potamotrygon previously considered valid, Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963 and Potamotrygon castexi Castello & Yagolkowski, 1969, was conducted based on a detailed analysis of external and internal morphology, including a morphometric and meristic study of specimens from the recorded range of both species. The taxonomic status of the nominal species P. menchacai Achenbach, 1967, treated by previous authors as a junior synonym of P. falkneri, was also evaluated. These nominal species, which constitute what has been called the falknericastexi complex, were found to represent examples of chromatic variation present in a single species, given that intermediate patterns of coloration are common and the remaining characters analyzed are not consistent enough for separation at the specific level. Consequently, Potamotrygon falkneri is considered valid, whereas the nominal species Potamotrygon castexi and Potamotrygon menchacai are concluded to be junior synonyms of P. falkneri. Additionally, a putative new species is identified from the río Madre de Díos in Peru, which has some characters that do not correspond to P. falkneri. This species, known from few individuals, is here provisionally treated as Potamotrygon sp.