new synonymies:
Pyrrhulina australis Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903
is a senior synonym of
Pyrrhulina macrolepis Ahl & Schindler, 1937
and probably also of
Pyrrhulina rachoviana Myers, 1926

In López et al. 2003 all three species are listed as valid. P. australis as P. australe.

published in:
Zarske, A. & J. Gery (2004):
Zur Variabilitaet von Pyrrhulina australis Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 (Teleostei: Characiformes: Lebiasinidae).
Zoologische Abhandlungen des Staatlichen Museums für Tierkunde, Dresden 54: 39-54

abstract (from publication):
The southern members of the genus Pyrrhulina Valenciennes, 1847 (P. australis, P. rachoviana and P. macrolepis) were compared on the basis of available material. P. rachoviana Myers, 1926 is probably a junior synonym of P. australis Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 according to this investigations. P. macrolepis Ahl & Schindler, 1937 is really a junior synonym of P. australis Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903. P. rachoviana was imported into Germany from Argentina by aquarium trade in 1906. The known morphological differences between P. australis and P. rachoviana are probably a result of good nutritional condition of the aquarium fishes which are basis of the type-material. The only difference between P. macrolepis and P. australis is a result of different counting of scales. The re-examination of the holotype shows that the count (17+2) falls into the variation of P. australis [21.64 (19-24), n=76]. There is need of the investigation of the live coloration of the species for enlightenment of the relationships of the members of this genus.